- Gender and Climate Change
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- Women and the Law
- Sexual Harrassment
- Women in Science
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- Women Health
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- Pagan Community
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- The Girl Child
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- Gender Justice
- Womens Education
- Indigenous Women
Germania e Venezuela: luterani eleggono donne leader
Ormai non conto più le volte in cui ho letto che le religioni, tutte le religioni sono oppressive nei confronti delle donne. Tutte? Ma siamo cosi' sicuri? Può ad esempio essere considerata misogina la Chiesa Evangelica Luterana del Venezuela che ha eletto la reverenda Guillermina Chaparro come sua presidente?
The new president of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Venezuela (Iglesia Evangélica Luterana en Venezuela - IELV) Rev. Guillermina Chaparro says her election as the head of the church is an indication of the IELV’s steady growth, especially in the rural areas.
The first woman to head the church, Chaparro was elected and installed on 6 February at the IELV’s 12th general assembly in Caracas, Venezuela. She said her election was the “culmination of a process that has been in gestation within the church.” She succeeds Rev. Akos Puky who has served as church president since 2002.
The Lutheran church is growing steadily in communities in the provinces, “thus it is logical that leaders emerge in these areas to contribute to church leadership,” Chaparro explained in an interview with Lutheran World Information (LWI). “I come from a grassroots community in a poor part of the (western) State of Barinas,” she said.
Nella vecchia europa, in Germania, la nazione che ha dato i natali a Lutero, Ilse Junkermann è stata eletta vescovo della Evangelical Church in Central Germany.
Oberkirchenrat Ilse Junkermann of Stuttgart has become the first woman bishop of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany (EKM). In the third round of secret balloting, the church synod in Wittenberg on 21 March elected the 51-year-old theologian by more than the required two-thirds majority.
Junkermann thus becomes the fourth woman bishop in the history of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD), after present bishops Maria Jepsen from Hamburg and Margot Kässmann from Hanover, and Bärbel Wartenberg-Potter from Lübeck, who retired last year.
Germania: appello per la salute delle donne nel mondo
Securing sufficient funding is the greatest obstacle to improving women's well-being and rights in the developing world, officials attending a conference on sexual and reproductive health said Friday.
Scott Radloff of the U.S. Agency for International Development told The Associated Press that the United States plans to increase its support for programs driven by that philosophy.
"We're likely to be witnessing about a 50 percent increase in funding for both family planning, reproductive health and for maternal/child health over a two-year period," Radloff said, without specifying exactly how much money would be allocated.
He said the funds would be distributed through NGOs and foreign governments, particularly in Africa and South Asia, where he and others at the conference see the greatest opportunity to spur development by improving women's health and rights.
"We put the money where the need is greatest," Radloff said.
One of the reasons why successes in the arena of sexual and reproductive health are slow coming is that few people comprehend what is at stake. Michelle Goldberg, author of The New York Times bestseller, ‘Kingdom Coming’ said it is perplexing that there is ‘so little understanding’ of sexual and reproductive health and rights in her country, the United States of America. ‘Savvy, well-informed people look at me blankly when I tell them that there is a global battle going on over sexual and reproductive health, and yet our [US] policies have impact over global health.’ Part of the problem, in getting people to pay attention could be that it was not an easy issue to ‘summarise in quick sound bytes,’ added Goldberg. Moreover, she said, it was hard to get people excited when the results seem vague and amorphous but have real world impact.
‘We call for an end to all forms of discrimination in connection with accessing and using health services, access to health services to be free of financial risks, universal access to sexual and reproductive health information, and services to be realized by 2015 at the latest, self-determination and the realisation of women’s human rights to be seen and promoted as being key to making sustainable progress on population development and health care.’ That’s a tall order for the immediate future. But without fulfilling it, the world will be forced to face a myriad of preventable human rights and resources-related crises.http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/world/02-from-cairo-consensus-to-berlin-call-01
Germania: importante disparità salariale tra uomini e donne
the study also found that women in Germany earn 23 percent less than men – well above the EU average of 16.6 percent less. The gender gap is larger in only Cyprus, the Netherlands, Slovakia and Estonia. The smallest wage gaps are in Italy (4.4 percent), Portugal and Slovakia (both at 8.3 percent).
European trade unions sharply criticised salary development in Germany, The unfair difference between male and female salaries is a scandal, said General Secretary for the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), Reiner Hoffmann, told the paper.
"The employers in Germany must finally change and give women equal rights in payment,” he said. “Other countries show that it’s possible.”
Germania: difficoltà per le donne a raggiungere posizioni apicali nelle aziende
Research conducted by the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) has found that women are still struggling to reach the top positions in Germany’s leading companies.
According to the study, only 42 of the 1,721 executive committee members at Germany’s top 600 listed companies are women. This corresponds to just 2.4 percent. The study also found that just 8.2 percent of those sitting on Boards of Directors were female.
“Even more shocking than the low proportion was the fact that, over the last ten years, significant change has not been made,” Professor Lindstädt added.
“Many more businesses should be forced to publicise the proportion of women in their top three positions as part of their Corporate Governance Reports. That way we can gain more transparency on this important point,” he said.
Perhaps one reason for this might be the fact that women who are successful in these economies face less social criticism than German women, who confront, for example, accusations that they are abandoning their maternal duty,
Germania: importanti disparità salariali tra uomini e donne nel pubblico impiego
Congratulazioni alla Cancelliera Merkel per la sua rielezione. Ovviamente mi felicito che un paese importante come la Germania abbia confermato per la seconda volta di voler essere guidato da una donna. Da adesso in avanti la figura del cancelliere potrà essere associata ad una donna come ad un uomo.
Questo non significa che le donne tedesche abbiano raggiunto la parità assoluta come si evidenzia dall'articolo riportato, l'ultimo di una serie. Esiste a quanto pare un importante problema legato alla disparità salariale nel mondo del lavoro. Mi auguro che la cabcelliera Merkel se ne occupi con la massima urgenza e che abbandoni il disgraziato progetto di ampliamento delle centrali nucleari.Female German public officials earn almost a fifth less than their male counterparts, according to a new study published in daily Die Welt on Monday.
The wage gap for the government jobs averaged 18.7 percent, the Confederation of German Trade Unions (DGB) study found.
The difference was particularly stark in middle and high positions, where the difference was 23.2 and 22.6 percent. Meanwhile female judges were found to earn 20.1 percent less than their male colleagues.
Germania: la vescova Margot Kasman eletta capo della chiesa luterana tedesca
Dalla Germania un'ottima notizia. Congratulazioni alla neo-eletta! Con l'auspicio di vedere più donne vescovo tra i luterani tedeschi.
Hannover Bishop Margot Käßmann became the first woman to lead the Protestant church in Germany on Wednesday after the majority of the synod voted in her favour.
Following the vote in Ulm, Käßmann, who has been at the helm of Germany’s largest regional church for more than 10 years, will lead all of Germany’s 25 million Protestants for the next six years.
Germania: le donne parlamentari vogliono poter portare i figli piccoli al lavoro
Segnalo la notizia perchè potrebbe avere delle ripercussioni positive anche per le donne che si trovano ad esempio ai vertici di enti pubblici o aziende private. Essere una madre non significa non potere o dovere dedicarsi con impegno al proprio lavoro, in questo caso quello di parlamentare.
There are several mothers in parliament who have infants, the paper said. Free
Since then, several female parliamentarians have been pressing Bundestag administrators for a new rule to allow babies if mothers can’t find alternative child care.
Supporters of the measure are also reviewing other options to accommodate politicians with babies, such as a day care room near the plenary hall of the Reichstag building, the paper said.
Germania: rapper misogino multato
Bene. Ben gli sta. Speriamo che maturi e cambi atteggiamento nei confronti delle donne.
Arapper who goes by the stage name of – or "gynaecologist" – was fined €8,400 by a court on Monday for distributing violent pornographic writings and depictions of violence.
Thedistrict court found the 31-year-old guilty of producing two in 2006 containing songs that describe the torture, mutilation and murder of women in excessive detail.
Germania: ancora poche le donne nei consigli di amministrazione
Among the 30 firms listed on the blue-chip index, electronics giant is the only group to have a woman on its board, it said.
"There will be no change in this trend without binding rules," the study concluded, citing the example of, which mandates that companies must reserve 40 percent of seats on executive boards for women.http://www.thelocal.de/money/20100127-24863.html
Germania: politica turco-tedesca apre il dibattito su eventuale restrizione del burqa
E' interessante che sia proprio una donna di origini turche a lanciare il dibattito.
“The burka is a full-body prison that deeply threatens human rights,”she told daily Frankfurter Rundschau. “It would be an important signal for Germany to ban the burka.”
A burka ban in German should include schools, universities, and high-security zones such as banks and airports, she said.
Meanwhile the' integration expert called the burka a particular form of discrimination that courts should not tolerate.
Germania: Deutsche Telecom introduce quote per le donne nei consigli di amministrazione
Si stanno cominciando a rendere conto che senza le quote i passi in avanti per le donne nelle posizioni apicali sono scarsi o nulli.
Europe's biggest telecommunications group,, said Monday would introduce a 30-percent quota for women in senior positions by the end of 2015.
"Having a greater number of women at the top will quite simply enable us to operate better," chief executivesaid. "Taking on more women in management positions is not about the enforcement of misconstrued egalitarianism. It is a matter of social fairness and a categorical necessity for our success."
“As an economist, I'm for self-regulation and creating voluntary incentives for companies to hire women,” Elke Holst, from the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW), told Deutsche Welle. “But, personally, I feel too little has happened and stronger action, such as legislation, may be necessary.”
According to DIW, only 2.5 percent of all executive board members in Germany's 200 largest companies (excluding the financial sector) are women, and only 10 percent of all seats on supervisory boards are occupied by women.
Overall progress in Europe has been slow, with the exception of Norway. In 2008, the Nordic country introduced a law mandating a 40 percent representation of women in boardrooms, with penalties for those companies that fall short of the quota.
According to a study conducted by the European Professional Women's Network (EPWN), the percentage of women on boards in Europe's 300 largest companies was 9.7 percent at the end of 2008, up from 8.5 percent in 2006 and 8 percent in 2004. Without Norway, the percentage dropped to 9.1 percent.
“We conduct the study only every two years because, as you can see, there has been very little progress,” said current EPWN president Monica Pesce, who is also president of the Professional Women's Association in Italy.http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,5357141,00.html
Germania: doppio standard a seguito alle dimissioni di Margot Kassman, vescova presidente della chiesa luterana
La chiesa luterana tedesca ha perso la sua prima donna leader. Brutta storia. La Kassman era stata sorpresa al volante in stato di ebrezza e multata. In seguito a ciò ha immediatamente rassegnato le sue dimissioni. Quanti leader maschi cattolici ed islamici implicati in situazioni ben più gravi come pedofilia o terrorismo hanno avuto la dignità di dimettersi?
We deeply regret Margot Käßmann's decision to resign her functions. The integrity and clarity of her theological, sociopolitical and societal positions will be missed within the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD). Her departure is a great loss for German Protestantism and a cause of great personal sadness. This departure, however, is consistent precisely with the integrity that we deeply appreciate in Margot Käßmann.
« Il me semble que Margot Kässmann a tiré très vite – peut-être trop – les conséquences de son erreur », a expliqué Denis Müller à ProtestInfo. « La question est rendue plus difficile quand la personne est très médiatisée ». M. Dubied abonde dans son sens: « Sans la médiatisation préalable de la cheffe de l'Eglise protestante allemande, elle n'aurait peut-être pas été sanctionnée de cette façon. Et sans la médiatisation de l'incident de l'ivresse au volant, elle n'aurait certainement pas dû quitter son poste ».
Le fait qu'elle soit une femme a certainement joué un rôle. « Il est clair que les femmes sont plus exposées à ce niveau de responsabilité. On attend d'elles plus de perfection et de professionnalisme », a évalué M. Müller.
Germania: donna immigrata denuncia datore di lavoro per discrominazione razziale e di genere
A woman born in the formeris claiming discrimination after discovering the word "Ossi" preceded by a minus sign had been written on a job application rejected by a firm in western Germany. She's going to court.
Born in the former East Germany, Gabriela S. applied unsuccessfully for a job with a window manufacturer in the southwestern city of
"Ossi" is an term for eastern that is often derogatory.
She is suing the company for discrimination based on ethnic origin. If she wins, the firm could be forced to pay her €4,800, or the equivalent of three months' salary.
Germania: alto tasso di suicidi tra le ragazze immigrate turche a causa della pressione misogina delle famiglie
While a nationwide study has yet to be undertaken, regional data from and shows that young women of Turkish background try to kill themselves twice as often as their German counterparts, daily Die Welt reported on Friday.
But a cooperation between ’s Charité hospital and the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf that began in early aims to find out the reasons behind the disturbing numbers.
Both facilities are now monitoring the statistics for suicide attempts by young women from 's largest immigrant population that are treated in their emergency rooms – in particular the reason the patients say they wanted to die, the paper said.
Papatya, an help centre for young female immigrants in Berlin, told the paper that it frequently helps women who already have already attempted suicide in the past.
“Often it’s a desperate attempt to give the family a sign that something must change that isn’t being heard, or that the family doesn’t want to believe,” a spokeswoman said. “Sometimes the girls have told us, ‘I’d rather kill myself than let my brother do it’.”
Charité’s Schouler-Ocak said that many of the women who try to kill themselves are completely dependent on their family or husband – particularly those young those who have come directly from as “import brides.”
Germania: adolescenti musulmani lanciano pietre verso gruppo teatrale di ebrei
About 30 children and youths, largely of
The youths were aged from 10 to 15, the paper reported.
The dance troupe, named Chaverim – Hebrew for “friends” – broke off their performance after one of their members was hit in the leg by a stone and lightly injured.
Charlotte, president of the , said the incident showed “a new social provocation, which already in the past weeks is clearly visible as it hasn’t been before.”
Hannover organisation or in advance.”
The chairman of the Jewish community in Lower Saxony, , said however that “the children acted at least with the approval, if not even the direction of their parents.”
Germania: la femminista Alice Schwarzer chiede un bando contro il velo islamico nelle scuole
Ottimo. In Francia sta funzionando, occorre adottare la legge anche in altri stati.
The headscarf is more than just a piece of fabric, more than just another article of clothing, and definitely not some hip lifestyle accessory that heavily made-up girls should use to add a little color to their wardrobe. No, the head scarf is a "flag and symbol of Islamists" which "followed a crusade all the way to the heart of Europe by the 1980s." Or so says iconic German feminist Alice Schwarzer in her new book, "The Great Cover Up: For Integration, against Islamism".
Teachers are no longer allowed to wear the head scarf in German public schools, and now Schwarzer has demanded the next step: Girls should be forbidden to wear it as well.
"Only this forceful act would finally give the young woman from a fundamentalist orthodox family the chance to move with freedom and equality, at least within the confines of the schoolyard," Schwarzer writes.
"The wearing of the headscarf, which turns the girls into 'strangers' who are cut off socially and limited physically, comes along with a whole array of special treatments that their parents demand from the school. It is always a question of dividing the sexes or - insofar as this is refused by the German schools - giving girls special dispensation from swimming class or gym class, from school trips and from sex education classes."
If the right to individuality is enforced, then the basic right to equality is breached, and the right to equal opportunity is annulled, the argument goes. Islam expert Rita Breuer spent the year 2009 hanging around German schoolyards. She contributed an article about the pressure that girls who wear headscarves often put on the students who don't wear the scarf, making comments like: "Are you trying to look like a German?" or "The headscarf is our honor - don't you have any?"
Such schoolyard discussions are then padded out with Koran commentaries, Fatwas - Islamic legal pronouncements - sermons or in the Internet, Breuer says. In these places, she adds, "Islamic woman's clothing is propagated as the embodiment of her protection and her dignity, whereas the Western alternatives are seen as heinous and disgraceful […] I see no trace of girls having the 'freedom to decide' whether or not to wear the headscarf, which we so much like to suggest."
The lesson she took out of this cannot be stated more clearly: "When religion rules over the state and society, we no longer move in the realm of possibility. We can't ask questions. … Only through separation of religion and state is it possible to find common ground. Let's call it the civic reference framework - far away from belief and disbelief - that is needed to create a civil society."
Germany could also learn a thing or two about civil society, and not only in terms of how it deals with Muslims. Germany itself is far from having a complete separation of church and state. Should a headscarf ban in schools ever make it into the German lawbooks, there will be plenty of opportunity to discuss the banning, or not-banning, of symbols from other religions. There is already a legal decision that bans the display of Christian crosses in schools in Germany.http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,6043028,00.html
Germania: il governo prende posizione contro i matrimoni forzati
The draft law from the Interior Ministry would define forced marriage as a crime punishable by up to five years in prison. Current German law views such situations as a serious case of coercion. While this charge also carries up to five years in prison, the new law would ease the legal prosecution of forced marriage.
But Justice Minister Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger warned on Wednesday that while the laws would be clarified, the legal fight against forced marriages would remain a challenge.
The German cabinet on Wednesday backed several proposed changes to immigration laws including cracking down on forced marriages by making them a punishable offence and offering better protection for victims.
Germania: Alina Triger diventa la prima donna rabbino dal dopoguerra
Alina Treiger only has to look at the portrait of her predecessor to realise the importance of the role she is about to assume. Regina Jonas made history when she was ordained as Germany's first female rabbi – but that role ended in her death in Auschwitz.
Now, Treiger is about to become the first female rabbi ordained in the country since before the second world war.
The picture of Jonas, hanging in Berlin's Jewish Museum, shows her in her black velvet gown and cap as she sternly clutches a prayer book. "When I look at her photograph I'm reminded of what a significant step this is," said Treiger.
According to Elisa Klapheck, author of The Story of the First Woman Rabbi, her name began to resurface only after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 with the opening of East Germany's archives. Among the 14 files left by Jonas was her seminal work entitled Can Women Serve as Rabbis? Jonas's answer was that female ordination was not just possible, it was a "cultural necessity".
"Jonas made the historical first attempt to argue, on the basis of Halacha, or Jewish religious law, for the emancipation of women … including admission to the rabbinate," said Klapheck.
Treiger is due to take up her rabbinical post in the 300-strong liberal community of Oldenburg, in western Germany, most of whose members hail from the former Soviet Union. She is expected to be the first of a wave of female rabbis, with another group due to finish their studies in 2012.
Germania: nell'ex Germania dell'est migliore clima culturale per le donne lavoratrici
Twenty years after reunification, the differences in attitudes to “career women” between the former communist east and democratic west remain stark. A study presented this week in the eastern city of Leipzig found that mixing work, marriage and children was considered a much more natural life to women in the former east than the west.
The report, “The Full Life! Women’s Careers in Germany,” was compiled by the Interior Ministry on the request of Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière. The data came from online surveys of 655 men in eastern and western Germany as well as figures drawn from previous studies.
Every second working woman in eastern Germany (53 percent) whose youngest child was under the age of 15 worked full-time in 2008. That was more than double the rate in the western states, where 22 percent worked full-time.
“The view in the study makes clear: the great majority of women in the eastern German states have made a new start without great fuss and despite structural problems,” de Maizière said.
Equal partnerships between men and women are considered normal in the east, the study concluded. By comparison, nearly a quarter of young men in the west cling on to a conservative image of themselves as the “family breadwinner” and the woman as the “housewife” – twice the proportion of men in the east.
Germania: ancora poche le donne nelle posizioni manageriali
The proportion of German women in management positions in the country's top companies is as low as in India, a new study has found.
According to a study carried out by consultancy firm McKinsey, Germany and India have the lowest percentage of women in top business posts, putting the two countries joint last in a table of the world's 11 most industrialized countries.
Only two percent of CEOs in Germany are women, the study found, with Barbara Kux of Siemens and Regine Stachelhaus of the energy company E.ON being among the few.
Germania: secondo la German Army Association le donne hanno dato positivi contributi all'Esercito
Speaking to news agency DAPD in Bonn, Sohst said the introduction of women into the armed forces had enriched the country's military.
At the start of 2001, women were enlisted into the German military for the first time, with 244 women joining up. Today, there are 17,300 women in the Bundeswehr, 9.2 percent of all soldiers.
"Women are part of normal society, and so they have become a normal part of the army," Sohst said. The fact that no woman had yet been promoted to general or colonel was down to the fact that women had only been part of the armed forces for a decade, he added.
But Sohst believes that the Bundeswehr will soon see its first female battalion or brigade commanders.
Germania: il governo potrebbe spingere le aziende ad avere più donne ai vertici
Buona notizia certo. Ma finchè non c'è un obbligo di legge ormai è dimostrato che, a parte lodevoli eccezioni, difficilmente le aziende aprono autonomamente alle donne nei consigli di amministrazione. Suggerirei alla cancelliera Merkel di darsi una mossa e di passare dalle parole ai fatti.
Chancellor Angela Merkel may have ruled out a mandatory quota for women in executive positions at German firms this week, but on Friday Family Minister Kristina Schröder said she was still pushing a graduated scheme to achieve the same ends.
According to the plan, large companies would have the next two years to voluntarily increase the number of women in leadership positions. But if numbers don’t triple by 2013, then a law enforcing the responsibility to do so would be enforced, Schröder explained.
A recent survey by the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW), found that just 2.2 percent of leadership positions at Germany's top 100 companies are women - only 11 out of 490.
Von der Leyen favoured a mandatory quota of 30 percent women on company boards and in executive positions. Schröder said she was also in favour of a quota but insisted it must be voluntary.
Germania: lo stato di Hesse approva parziale bando anti-burqa
Forza, coraggio, dai, ce la possiamo fare. Mamma mia quanta circospezione per rendere illegale questa prigione semovente! Ad ogni modo un primo passo nella giusta direzione, meglio poco che nulla.
The decision was made by Interior Minister Boris Rhein in response to a worker at a local administrative office, or Bürgeramt, in Frankfurt who wanted to report for work wearing a burka.
The woman is just finishing a period of parental leave but has been given some extra time to reconsider her position.
“We have allowed her a couple more days to think about the situation,” said Frankfurt city head of personnel Markus Frank. “We want to relieve the pressure somewhat.”
The city was following the clear rule that workers in the public service must make their faces visible. Frank said he hoped that the woman would think the matter over and return to work without the burka.
“We’re giving her another chance. Either she takes it or she doesn’t,” he said. “That is a clear limit that we are sticking to"
Germania: stabilite pene per chi costringe le donne immigrate a matrimoni forzati
Those who force women and girls into marriage can now face up to five years in German prison, under a new integration measure passed by the German parliament on Thursday.
The German parliament approved a law on Thursday which calls for up to five years in prison for anyone forcing a girl or woman into marriage. The new law would also give non-German citizens who are forced by their husbands or families to leave the country after their marriage a legal right to return to Germany.
The parliament in Berlin also addressed several other issues related to the integration of foreigners in the society.
Germania: le più importanti aziende si impegnano a reclutare le donne nei consigli di amministrazione
Germany's leading industrial companies have pledged to recruit and promote more women, especially in top management jobs.
The 30 companies listed on Frankfurt's DAX index of blue chip stocks said after meeting with ministers Wednesday that they would set company-specific goals to promote more female managers.
Germania: la maggioranza della popolazionea favore delle quote di genere nei consigli di amministrazione
Ora vediamo cosa altro aspettano per muoversi. Non comprendo come mai sia cosi' difficile da accettare il fatto che senza una pressione di tipo legislativo cambierà ben poco e con troppa lentezza. Ad ogni modo il sostegno della popolazione è sicuramente un dato positivo.
A new poll has found that 70 percent of Germans are in favor of a mandatory quota for women in executive positions at German companies. Even a majority of men have signed on to the idea.
The poll, carried out for Germany's federal family ministry and published in Sunday's edition of the Welt am Sonntag newspaper, found that 79 percent of women and 62 percent of men feel legal instruments should be put in place to ensure more women are represented in German corporate boardrooms.
In addition, 95 percent of women and 88 percent of men said that country had enough talented women to fill senior management positions.
Germania: metà delle donne coinvolte nei matrimoni forzati sono cittadine tedesche
Nearly half of those in forced marriages or in danger of such in Germany are German citizens, while around a third are minors, according to the most detailed study of the practice to date.
The study, commissioned by the Ministry for Family Affairs, threw up a number of surprises, as well as confirming much that is already known about forced marriages, said the daily Süddeutsche Zeitung on Wednesday which had advance access to the report, due to be launched the same day.
Nearly all of those concerned came from migrant families, with the most common country of origin of the parents being Turkey, followed by the former Yugoslavia and Iraq, according to the report.
More than 80 percent of the parents concerned were Muslim, while nearly 10 percent were Yazidist, a Kurdish religion, and more than three percent were Christians.
Yet the study’s authors, from the Hamburg-based Lawaetz Foundation and the women’s organisation Terre des Femmes, warned against regarding the problem as an Islamic one – factors such as tradition, images of masculinity and poverty should not be ignored, they stressed.
The victims of forced marriage said it was their fathers who exerted the most pressure upon them.
The authors said it was notable that forced marriages also featured in families where the father had professional training or had graduated from high school – more than six percent of those examined.
Yet in general the fathers had the average educational levels of their migrant peers and nearly 90 percent of the victims’ mothers had no formal education.
The main motive for the forced marriage was the image of the family, the victims reported – it was often a mechanism to stop unwanted friendships and even as a reaction to the homosexuality of a child – around five percent of those concerned were male.
Around a quarter of the victims said they were threatened with death, while more than half said their relatives used violence against them and more than 70 percent said threats and blackmail were used to push them into marriages they did not want.
Germania: le scuole pubbliche non sono obbligate a dare spazi per le preghiere
Victory for secularism!
A German federal court has backed a principal in banning a Muslim pupil from praying at school, ruling it could jeopardise the institution's smooth running.
Although the Leipzig-based federal administrative court found that the right to pray even at school was guaranteed by religious freedom under the constitution, it said students lose the right if a conflict is created in the process.
The court said the high school in Berlin was right in stopping the 18-year-old pupil, who had taken his school to court, from praying as "sometimes very severe conflicts" had broken out among Muslim pupils over the interpretation of the Quran.
Capping a more than two-year legal battle, it ruled that a pupil "is not entitled to perform prayer during school outside of class when this can disrupt the running of the school".
The court also said the creation of a separate prayer room would go beyond the capacities of the Berlin school.
Weekly news magazine Der Spiegel said that the consequences of Wednesday's ruling would be closely watched nationwide.
"Yunus M kicked off proceedings which could write legal history," it said in its online edition.
Germania: la chiesa luterana della Sassonia riconosce i pastori gay e lesbiche
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in the east German state of Saxony ruled on Jan. 21 that gay pastors will for the first time be allowed to cohabit with their partners.
"I hope that Christians will endorse in the community of our Church the decision by the church leadership," the Lutheran Bishop of Saxony, Jochen Bohl, said in a statement. "I am sure that homosexual people with whom we are joined in the community of the church will be accepted as sisters and brothers in faith."
Same-sex couples have been able to register partnerships legally in Germany since 2001, but until now pastors in the Lutheran Church of Saxony have only been able to share their rectory homes with their partners if they are married.
Even following this revision of the rules, cohabitation for gay pastors will not be automatically allowed. They will have to be joined in legal same-sex partnerships and each case will be evaluated individually and require the unanimous support of the relevant parish council.
Germania: popolazione e politici ancora riluttanti a creare quote per le donne nei consigli di amministrazione
Voluntary quotas has not worked and yet they insist in following a direction that has proved over and over wrong.
The better definition of insaniity is doing the sme thing again and again while expecting different results.
Most Germans would like to see firms adopt a voluntary quota to ensure that women hold a certain percentage of top management jobs – but only around one in four would like to see this enshrined in law, new figures show.
Family Minister Kristina Schröder has been pushing for a voluntary quota, while Labour Minister Ursula von der Leyen wants a legally enforceable one.
The two cabinet members are often depicted by the German media as being at odds.
The survey, published by Der Spiegel on Friday was commissioned by the ARD public television station. It showed one in four Germans favours legally requiring companies to hold a certain percentage of top manager jobs for women.